October 31, 2011
Sunday October 30th
The prospects for finding fungi had improved over the previous week with the arrival of the damp but mild weather. Two of us had recently had successful outings; Mafro harvested Field Mushrooms – Agaricus campestris and the previous night I had dined on Shaggy Ink-caps – Coprinus comatus. Both of these are open grassland species and, as it turned out, down in Dering Woods there was still insufficient ground moisture to kick-start a serious fungal recovery.
This was partly evidenced by the lack of ectomycorrhizal fungi, the ones in beneficial association with trees. The mycelia join up with the tree root systems and as such are found further down beneath the soil. Mushrooms such as Boletes, Russulas (Brittlegills) and Amanitas are of this kind. When you pick the fruit-bodies (remember this is what a mushroom or toadstool is – the fruit-body of an underground organism)you have to dig your fingers into the soil to gently free the base, as many are relatively deep rooting.
We found three representatives of this kind; Fly Agaric – Amanita muscaria, Common Yellow (or Ochre) Russula (or Brittlegill) – Russula ochroleuca and a solitary Brown Roll-rim – Paxillus involutus. The latter is curious because despite having gills it is closely related to the spongy-pored Boletes. Close examination of our specimen revealed the gills becoming tube-like where they ran down the stem.
It is also noteworthy because it was historically widely eaten until it was discovered to contain a cumulative toxin – an antigen, in fact – that, once tip-over point is reached, causes a person’s immune system to turn against them and fatally destroys their red blood cells. This can even happen a year after eating the mushroom with no ill-effects, upon eating a second meal. In parts of Eastern Europe, apparently, some people still gamble their lives with this one.
The rest were mainly saprobic types, either deriving their nourishment from decaying wood or leaf-litter, apart from the destructive Honey Fungus – Armillaria mellea, which attacks living trees. Many, but not all, were LBJs – Little Brown Jobs, originally a birding term, meaning obscure and hard to identify, in this case small fungi with many similar species that require microscopic examination to separate. However, after lunch, our basket provided a challenge for the different levels of experience within our group – to sort them into Genera based on their shared or differing macro-characteristics. I was impressed by how well everyone did.
Early steps in the right direction are the ability to recognise a fungus in all stages in its development from immature to over-mature and to differentiate a mushroom that has turned funnel shaped with age like an umbrella blown inside-out by the wind, from a species that is naturally a funnel shape with decurrent gills (those that run down the stem).
Whilst out and about we encountered several interesting animal field-signs. The burrow of a Brown Rat, Rattus norvegicus, is more often in a slight rise or bank than the one pictured, with a characteristic fan of earth outside the entrance. This one was a bit more sprawling and less neat than usual with a very distinct digging channel.
Carol led us to a Hornet’s nest that she had found earlier in the year. It was no longer occupied and something – probably a squirrel, or possibly a woodpecker – had opened up the lower levels and emptied the queen cells of any remaining larvae. Nature’s interactions are absolutely fascinating.
Back on the farm, and in the middle of a field, something similar had happened with this wasp nest, only the culprit was most definitely a Badger – Meles meles. With their good sense of smell they can sniff out and with their powerful claws, dig out a wasp nest quite easily. Certainly they attack at night and the wasps will be disorientated in the dark, nonetheless, you’d expect a badger to take quite a few stings, especially around the head and mouth where the fur is thinner. Also, when they devour the plump, nutritious grubs they are bound to ingest adults and indeed, may do so deliberately, in which case they must get stung inside the mouth. Perhaps they are immune, or simply don’t care? I’d love to watch the actual scenario play out, having seen the evidence many times.
Despite the afternoon wearing on and the light beginning to fade, a last wander produced more surprises and delights. The adjacent arable field turned out to be overflowing with wild Field Mushrooms – Agaricus campestris, so that everyone who wanted some took home a basketful – or a hatful.
Even more thrilling for me was the fact that the dominant weed of the field was an obscure plant called Sharp-leaved Fluellen – Kickxia elatine, a plant that I had not seen for over 20 years! As if that were not enough, to my absolute delight, a companion plant in the same field turned out to be Round-leaved Fluellen – Kickxia spuria, a species new to me. These plants seem to have the ability to lie dormant as seeds for some time. They can disappear and reappear years later if conditions become right and the seed bank is disturbed. Both are members of the Toadflax family (note the little snapdragon-like flowers) and are by no means common, occurring, as on this occasion, in little local pockets, on cultivated land, though widely distributed across southern England. They are archaeophytes, meaning they were anciently introduced to this country. During the Middle Ages the bitter juice was used as an astringent and K. elatine as a medicine for skin disorders. Like many other important plants they suffered from the over-use of pesticides, but perhaps the maize crop that had previously been harvested was organically produced.
Bad light stopped play. This was too brief a visit for re-acquaintance or a first encounter. The shared feeling was come back as soon as we can.
Saturday October 22nd, 2011
Despite the arid conditions that have prevailed throughout October in this corner of England our seasonal Bushcraft Magazine fungus foray turned up around 30 species, by my reckoning. Mind you, we had to walk over 5 miles through King’s Wood, Challock in Kent to find them. This is the worst year I can remember for a poor October show, although some of the late 1990s were close. Below are two spreads of the collection that came back (with a few fungi repeated in both).
Amanita muscaria – Fly Agaric was the first specimen of the day, under birch in the car park, though it had been smashed to pieces by a mower or strimmer. Several very fine specimens turned up subsequently. In my opinion the best fungus of the foray was a beautiful Tawny Grisette – Amanita fulva growing in moss at the base of a tree . I didn’t photograph it despite its photogenic qualities and I didn’t collect because it would have spoiled its perfection. The brown volva was clear for all to see and the shiny, conical brown cap still retained a fragment on top. We had a small Grisette – Amanita vaginata for comparison (see above).
In addition to those illustrated above we found Deceiver – Laccaria laccata, Honey Fungus – Armillaria mellea ,and what I believe to be a young fruitbody of Stereum sanguinolentum - Bleeding Conifer Crust. The spectacular amber and bloodlike drops are a characteristic feature of two other members of this family that are found on dead broadleaf tree-stumps, while this was on coniferous wood.
The weather was benign, and the warm Autumn sunshine led to us surprising a basking Adder – Vipera berus that had not yet entered hibernation. We also encountered numerous Dor Beetles – Geotrupes stercorarius. These are dung eaters but they also feed on decaying fungi. I have seen them doing this in the New Forest.
As for edibles – not many really. The Deceivers were not in good enough condition. The birch boletes would not have gone far. I elected to try to find a way of making the ‘Witch’s Egg’ of a Stinkhorn – Phallus impudicus palatable on everyone else’s behalf. I took home and baked three of them sliced with onion on top of marinated pork belly topped with pickled peppers and beans. What can I say? Everything around them tasted good. That was my third attempt. I give up now.
May 21, 2011
With May in full bloom, now is the ideal time to take advantage of an unusual source of nourishment – flowers. That familiar classic, Elder – Sambucus nigra, is of course bursting into blossom and after venturing into the woods, hedges and fields many of us have enjoyed fritters, cordial and ‘champagne’ from that particular plant. However, there may be several interesting and slightly exotic species close to home that also require our attention.
Currently, the False Acacia – Robinia pseudoacacia in my garden is laden with pendulous racemes of white Wisteria-like flowers, more than I can remember, and probably at least two weeks early. A flower bud plucked from one of these bunches tastes deliciously like mange tout, while the freshly opened blossom has the added sweetness of nectar and a divine perfumed fragrance. The flavour and the pouty-lipped petal shape tell you that this is very much a member of the Pea Family – Leguminosae. Perversely, legumes are largely toxic to some degree or another, though often with the exception of their blooms. Broom and Gorse are two more examples where the flowers may be eaten.
Robinia flowers are good eating raw once removed from their central spike, with many additional options when cooked. Also known as Black Locust, this tree originated in the Appalachians of North America but is widely planted or naturalised and common in parts of Europe, particularly France and Italy where much culinary use is made of it. If you find one, take care when plucking as young branches, especially, bear large triangular spines.
When cooking, try to ‘branch out’. Subtle, fragrant flavours often go well with fish; try adding elderflower or Robinia blossom in cakes also. Here is an Italian-style acacia fritter recipe.
Robinia Flower Fritters
1 cup Robinia pseudoacacia flowers
1 cup plain flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
¼ cup Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon Grape) berries or 1 small sour apple
1 cup of condensed milk or 200ml double cream + tablespoon of Demerara sugar
1 egg yolk
1 teaspoon vanilla extract or flavouring
a little vegetable oil
Pick approximately 10-12 racemes, shake off any insects and finished flowers and use only the opened fresh flowers and a few buds.
Combine the cream, egg yolk, vanilla and salt. Then stir in the flour and baking powder. It should be thick but not too dry. Add a little milk if necessary. Add the blossom and berries (or chopped sour apple) and mix thoroughly.
Heat some oil in a frying pan. Scoop up some of the mixture and pat down onto the pan. Cook for a couple of minutes until a skin forms on the underside. Flip and pat down until that side seals. Turn once more on both sides until golden brown and cooked through.
Got Red-hot Pokers (Knipophia )in your garden? Then you’ve got a ready-made energy refuelling station, used by some smart birds, and canny folk in the know. Brush against one by accident and you will find out.
Copious drops of sweet high-octane nectar will splash out. Just lick it off your fist and taste those natural sugars or go round the flower bed and fill a small jug to top your fritters with. Our Blue Tits often pause on a flower spike to refuel on the way back from feeding their young, unwittingly taking on the role of Sunbirds in The plant’s native South Africa. Lovely stuff.
And finally, for now, there is the Day-lily (Hemerocallis fulva).
Big, lily-like blooms open up for a day then wither but in the big fat bud stage are delicious picked and eaten straight. A glutinous, slightly pea-like flavour with a spicy aftertaste. They are extensively used in the Far East, from whence they originate. Plenty of potential for cooking, and I suspect, pickling – something I intend to try when they are a bit further on.
March 7, 2011
Cockles are well known edible marine clams that can be found around most of the UK coastline in sandy bays and estuaries. The unmistakeable globular shells, which have been much used decoratively, are thick are deeply ribbed and from the side, attractively heart-shaped.
Cockles are filter feeders. They are not as mobile as some bivalves and as a consequence choose to inhabit the top 5 cm of surface of sediments. They can be abundant where they have not been over-fished by commercial dredgers. Population densities of 10,000 per square metre have been recorded. If harvested sustainably, therefore, cockles are a great food resource for shorebirds and shore-folk alike.
In the last year or so, the cockle beds on the south coast of Kent have had a huge settling of spat (baby cockles), which should go a long way to sustaining the population.
However, the mortality rate is very high and in the early winter tens of thousands of young and mature cockles were killed by severe frosts affecting exposed animals between tides.
The traditional method of harvesting them (for a living) is to use a wooden rake but to find enough to make a meal for a couple of people can take little effort and a lazy hour of time. Many estuary stocks are protected or have associated trigging (cockling) rights, so make sure you gather some local knowledge beforehand. An ebb tide is good. As the tide recedes cockles are often left stranded and exposed, washed out of any slight rise in the shore.
Given time, many will pull themselves below the surface using their muscular foot, or they may just tough it out on the surface for 12 hours.
Birds will find them and so will people.
Your haul will almost certainly need de-gritting. If left overnight in a bucket of sea water that is not too deep and with a large surface area, the cockles will spit out most of the sand they have taken in.
Cooking is easy; boiling water for about 5 minutes, until most of the cockles open. If some don’t or open only partially, discard them. Fresh cockles are delicious with crusty bread, especially if a generous glass of white wine and a knob of butter is added to the cooking water, but they can also form an ingredient of any number of seafood dishes.
Cockles and Carragheen with lemon, peppers and ginger over long pasta
Cockles – approx.1.25 kilos in their shells, 140g without
50ml white wine or mirin
1 litre water
Boil the cockles in fresh water and wine in a saucepan, with a knob of butter until they are all open (about 4-5 minutes). Drain immediately and remove the meat from the shells. Set aside in a small dish. Reserve 350-500ml of the liquid they were cooked in. Strain out any grit.
Ingredients; (for the sauce)
¾ red pepper
½ – ¾ yellow pepper
75g fresh tomato
2cm fresh ginger root
1 medium onion
1 small, hot chilli
140g freshly cooked cockles (see above)
10g of dried Carragheen (reconstituted)
1 tablespoon Demerara sugar
1 teaspoon white wine vinegar
1 tablespoon fish sauce
¼ lemon, thinly sliced
25g butter + vegetable oil
230g Fusilli Bucati Lunghi or Linguini or Spaghetti
Heat butter and oil in frying pan. Chop up all the fresh ingredients. First add onion to pan over high heat, add sugar to caramelise for 1 minute. Add teaspoon white wine vinegar. Then add peppers and chilli; cook for further 2-3 minutes. Add the tomato and cook for 1 more minute. Add lemon, ginger, but only half the Ramsons. Pour over about 350ml of the cockle water and throw in the Caragheen. Stir in the ingredients and simmer for 10 minutes to allow the seaweed to thicken the sauce while the pasta cooks. Add the fish sauce at this stage and season.
Rinse the cooked cockles and add to the pan, along with the rest of the Ramsons, 2 minutes before the end. Do not overcook the cockles.
Drain the pasta serve and pour on the sauce. 2 portions
If you fancy some practical cockling experience come and join us on our shrimping and sandy shore foraging course at Greatstone on Sea on Saturday April 9th. Look at the courses page for details.
January 26, 2011
After the extraordinary December we’ve just had I have been eyeing my foraging grounds with much interest recently. This was partly because I’d been looking forward to locating a patch of velvet shanks – a particular and very welcome winter favourite of mine – but also because various friends around the country had been remarking on just how very lean the pickings were, even for January.
Now, I like a challenge as much as the next person. So I decided to see just exactly what I could find in my area, right now, in the middle of all this apparent cold and frosted barrenness and more importantly, whether I could successfully conjure a three course meal (and drink!) from it.
The first thing I noted after a little careful observation was that far from killing everything stone dead as you might expect, the depth of the snow and the consistent low temperatures had actually produced a surprising insulating effect.
Forage that I would normally expect to have been rotted or scavenged by birds etc., such as chestnuts and apples were simply laying where they’d fallen and once covered, they had remained insulated and preserved. The same thing was apparent with many of the leafy greens. In a normal January I would be watching for fresh young growth among old and frost-damaged material, but what I actually found alongside new leaves was a fair amount of sound, undamaged and fully mature ones. Certainly there seemed to be enough of everything to make a decent meal – things were looking up!
Once I’d realised the potential of all this I also realised that the now exposed fruits, nuts and greens were unlikely to stay fresh and undamaged for long. Pretty soon all the furred and feathered critters would also cotton on to this unexpected bounty, and then it would be a race between them and me. So I spent two days gathering everything useful I could find in enough variety and quantity, I thought, to achieve my goal.
Wilding apples, Japanese quince (ok, these came from my neighbour’s unappreciated hedge, but they were going free so who am I to be precious?), chestnuts as fresh and crunchy as the day they fell back in autumn last year, Glowing, sticky-capped velvet shank (an abundance of these, they really seem to thrive in the extreme cold!), emerald green and velvety young mallow leaves, tangy common sorrel, rosettes of mustard greens, guelder rose, tufts of alexanders shooting from the soil, frosted – but still useable – rosehips. There was a remarkable amount of stuff. And here’s what I made with it.
January forage starter:
* Batter-dipped mallow and parmesan fritters
This is a serving for one – scale up according to your requirements
100g Young mallow leaves (or approx 6 leaves per person)
150g fresh grated parmesan cheese
salt and pepper to season
Vegetable oil for deep frying
150g plain flour sifted
Take a measuring jug or bowl and gradually beat some ice cold water into the flour until you have a batter the consistency of thin cream. Stir in approx 2 heaped teaspoonsful of the grated parmesan.
Wash and trim the mallow leaves, then drop each one into the batter making sure that it is well coated. Remove the leaf carefully with a fork, allowing excess batter to drip off (it will have crumpled up but should instantly fan back out when it is fried.)
Quickly drop the coated leaf into the hot oil. Cook until both sides are lightly browned and crisp, then immediately remove it and leave to drain on some kitchen towel (you will need to work fast).
Layer the fritters on a serving plate, sprinkling them with the remaining parmesan and serve with a creamy yogurt and hedge garlic dip.
* Creamy Yoghurt and Hedge Garlic Dip
100g hedge garlic leaves
1 small carton of greek yogurt
Very finely mince fresh hedge garlic leaves and stir into the yoghurt. Chill and serve as a dip to accompany the mallow fritters.
Pan-fried Pheasant Breast, served with steamed & buttered mustard greens, chestnut and velvet shanks in a fruity hedgrow glaze, and potato and white deadnettle latkes.
* Steamed and Buttered Mustard Greens (to accompany the main dish)
Allow 1 large rosette of wild mustard greens per person
Generous knob of butter
Salt & pepper to season
Squeeze of lemon juice (optional)
Wash the mustard greens carefully, trimming off the root and separating the leaves from the rosette. Discard any damaged or really coarse ones and tidy up the ends of the stems. Pile them into a steamer pan over a couple of inches of water and bring the heat up until you have a gentle simmer. Cover the steamer and leave until the greens are tender but still a little crisp.
Remove the greens from the steamer and place in a hot serving dish with a generous amount of butter, optional squeeze of lemon and a pinch of seasoning. Cover and serve piping hot.
*Velvet Shank and Chestnuts in a rich fruity glaze (to accompany the main dish)
This is a single serving – scale up according to your needs
100g fresh chestnuts, peeled
100g velvet shank fungi washed and trimmed
Oil to cook
Chicken stock 2 tblsp
1 small onion, thinly sliced
1 clove of garlic, crushed
2 tsp white wine
2 tblsp Hedgerow fruit sauce or jam (choose a rich fruity hedgerow mix such as damson or rosehip and hawthorn)
Start by dropping the peeled chestnuts one at a time into a pan of boiling water. Leave each one for a minimum of 30 seconds before scooping it out quickly (it will be hot!) and peeling away any bitter inner skin. Peel each chestnut in turn taking care not to leave them in the water too long otherwise they may overcook and become soft and floury making them impossible to handle later. Check one by breaking it open – they should be just cooked on the outside, but still fresh and firm on the inside. Set aside on kitchen roll to cool.
Now, working quickly, drop the velvet shanks into a shallow pan of fresh boiling water and let them poach and for a few moments. Don’t let them over-cook , they should be poached but still have a good meaty texture. Once they are all cooked, set them aside also.
Place small heavy bottomed skillet over a medium heat and add a little oil. Gently fry the finely sliced onion until it has softened and begun to caramelise but do not let it burn. Stir in the crushed garlic and gently cook a little longer.
Deglaze the pan with the wine, stirring continuously. Add the chicken stock and fruit sauce or jam and continue to stir until everything is thoroughly blended and slightly reduced. Take the velvet shanks and chestnuts and add them to the pan, stirring to coat them in the glaze and gently warming everything through. Serve hot.
* Dead nettle and potato latkes (to accompany main dish)
Minced deadnettle tips 2 good handfuls
1 Alexander shoot (leaves only) finely minced
2 large potatoes, grated
1 small onion, finely sliced
Fresh ground salt & pepper to season
2 tblsp plain flour, sifted
1 cup ice cold water
Vegetable oil for frying
Peel and grate the potatoes and taking a clean tea towel, heap the gratings in the middle, fold up the sides and wring the cloth to extract as much of the starchy juices as you can.
Place the potato, onion and finely minced deadnettle and alexanders together in a bowl. Season well and stir them all together. Make up a simple batter by mixing the flour and water, adding only small amounts at a time until you have something the consistency of thin cream. Stir this into the potato mix making sure that it is thoroughly incorporated.
Take a large heavy bottomed skillet (or cast iron griddle if you have one), grease it well and heat until just smoking.
Working quickly, spoon large heaps of the potato mixture onto the skillet, pressing them down to make flat patties around a quarter inch to half inch thick. Once they are browned, quickly flip each patty over and cook the other side. Drain on paper towels and serve hot.
*Pan-Fried Pheasant Breast
Allow one breast per person.
Wash the breast and pick out any shot you find in the meat. Heat a heavy bottomed frying pan with a very little oil in it until just smoking, then quickly sear each side of the pheasant breast to seal it. Turn the heat down slightly, and leave to cook for approx 5 min each side. You want the meat to be just cooked through, but moist inside.
Cut the breast into slices and plate up with the mustard greens, chestnuts and velvet shanks and the potato and deadnettle latkes. Serve piping hot.
* Wilding apple over Quince paste, baked in a hazelnut shortcrust tart with Sorrel custard and served with Rosehip sauce.
For the hazelnut shortcrust pastry:
This recipe makes enough individual flan cases to serve 4 – scale your recipe up or down as required.
Water (to make a dough)
Ground or finely chopped roasted hazelnuts 100g
sugar 1 dessertspoon
For the tart filling:
200g Japanese quince, made into a paste (this is very simple to make. Peel and de-seed the quinces and cook them to a pulp in a little water. Add enough sugar to equal the amount of quince puree and continue to cook over a medium heat until the mixture has reduced and thickened)
2 medium apples
For the Sorrel Custard:
unsweetened sorrel puree (allow 100g of fresh leaves per serving per person – so for 4 tartlets you need 400g)
15g plain flour
30g sugar or 2 to 3 tsp honey to sweeten
1 large egg
150ml single cream
1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
For the Rosehip Sauce:
400g rosehips, washed, topped and tailed
Begin by making up the shortcrust pastry. Rub the butter into the flour until it resembles fine bread crumbs, then stir in the finely chopped roasted hazelnuts and sugar making sure they are well mixed in. Pour a little of the water into the flour at a time, working it into the flour mix and keep going until you have a ball of soft but not over wet dough. Leave this aside in a cool place to rest while you prepare the tart filling.
Peel the quince and cut the flesh into cubes. Place this in a pan with a little water, cover and simmer over a low heat until it becomes a soft puree, then sweeten to taste and continue to cook until the paste has thickened then set it aside to cool.
Grease 4 individual tartlet tins of around 3″ diameter and line them with the rolled hazelnut shortcrust, pricking the base with a fork. Line each flan case with baking beans and bake blind for 10 to 15 min on a medium heat or until they are just slightly golden and beginning to crisp. Remove the flan cases from the oven, pour out the baking beans and return them to the oven so that the inside bases can be crisped up and lightly cooked (taking time to do this will give you a crisp pastry case rather than a soggy one!). Set aside to cool.
Once the flan cases are cool, cover the inside surfaces of each one with a little of the quince puree. Peel and core the apples and cut the flesh into very thin slices. Arrange a layer of apple slices on top of the quince paste. You now need to make the sorrel custard that will be baked over them.
Take the washed and trimmed sorrel leaves and reduce them to a soft puree in a pan with just a very little water (you will need to take care over this, too much and the puree will be too runny, not enough and it may stick and burn). Stir the puree well so that any large pieces of sorrel are broken up and the texture is smooth.
In a bowl, mix the flour and sugar together, then mix in the egg and stir until you have a thickish, creamy paste. In a pan, gently heat the single cream until it is just about to boil. Switch off the heat and gently drizzle the flour/sugar/egg mix into the cream, whisking as you go. Add a few drops of vanilla extract, then stir in the sorrel puree.
Carefully spoon enough sorrel custard mixture over the apple and quince filling and then return the tartlets to the oven. Bake them on a low heat for approx 15 to 20 mins or until the custard has begun to set then remove the tartlets from the oven and leave them on a tack to cool. You can now make your rosehip sauce.
Place the clean, topped and tailed rosehips into a pan with just enough water to cover them (no more, no less!). Simmer, covered, over a low heat until the hips begin to become pulpy.
Rub the rosehip pulp through a sieve back into the rinsed pan and add the sugar. Cook this mixture over a medium/low heat until it reduces and begins to thicken into a sauce. Serve the cooled rosehip sauce with your wilding apple and quince tartlets.
* Spiced Guelder Rose and Rosehip ‘toddy’
Guelder rose berries 600g
Fresh root ginger, peeled and coarsely chopped
two star anise
six Cardamom pods
sugar or honey to sweeten
Brandy, optional (one shot per glass)
Place the washed, topped and tailed rosehips and the washed guelder rose berries into a pan with enough water to cover them. Add the star anise, cardamom and ginger, cover the pan and simmer everything until the fruits become soft and pulpy. Gently squash the hips/berries on the side of the pan to extract as much of the juice from them as you can, then rub the mixture through a sieve back into the rinsed pan, discarding the spices, seeds and skins.
Sweeten the fruit puree (which should have the consistency of tomato juice) with sugar or honey to taste, and serve warm in tall glasses – with an optional shot of brandy stirred in if you choose.
Appended is a list of the wild plants used in this article. If you are unsure about the identification of any of them, use the Latin names to look them up in an ID guide. Only eat a plant if you are totally confident its identity.
Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum)
Hedge Garlic (Alliaria petiolata)
Common Mallow (Malva sylvestris)
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana)
Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa)
White or Red Dead-nettle (Lamium album or L. purpureum)
Alexanders (Smyrnium olusatrum)
Velvet Shanks (Flammulina velutipes)
Japanese Quince (Chaenomeles japonica)
Common Sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
Guelder Rose (Viburnum opulus)
Rosehips (Rosa canina) or other Rosa sp.